There are two types of treatments that have been shown in numerous research studies to reduce the symptoms of anxiety disorders: (a) certain types of medications, and (b) a certain type of psychological treatment called cognitive-behavioral therapy (or “CBT” for short). This page briefly reviews the pros and cons of each type of treatment, and then focuses on CBT, which is our specialty at the ASDC.
The major classes of medication that have been well-researched and shown to be effective in reducing anxiety disorder symptoms are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; e.g., Paxil), tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., Anafranil), Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs; e.g., Nardil), and benzodiazepines (e.g., Klonopin).
The advantages of using medications to treat anxiety disorders include:
The disadvantages of using medication for anxiety include:
CBT is a set of psychological treatment techniques that view the patient/client as an active participant in his or her own treatment. It is seen as beneficial if the patient understands exactly what is involved in treatment, and the ideas behind why these particular treatment techniques are used. The techniques used in CBT have been tested in hundreds of studies with thousands of people who suffer from anxiety problems. The results of these studies show that CBT is often very effective in reducing anxiety and related problems. A full description of CBT appears further below.
The advantages of CBT for treating anxiety include:
The disadvantages of CBT include:
What can you expect if you undergo CBT for an anxiety problem…
CBT is based on the idea that anxiety problems involve maladaptive patterns of thinking and behavior. Thinking patterns in anxiety usually include the tendency to overestimate the probability and severity of negative outcomes. This type of thinking leads to feelings of anxiety. Behavioral patterns in anxiety disorders include avoidance, compulsive rituals, and other anxiety-reduction strategies (“safety behaviors”). These behaviors serve as an escape from anxious situations, yet they also prevent the person from finding out that these situations are not nearly as dangerous as they had thought. Therefore, the person gets stuck performing the maladaptive behaviors which maintain their fears. In CBT, the person learns new ways of thinking and behaving in situations which create anxiety so that he or she can realize that such situations are not dangerous.
The first step in CBT involves getting a thorough history of the person’s life experiences and psychological functioning, and then assessing whether a medical or psychiatric consult is necessary. A medical consult is often helpful to rule out possible physical/medical causes for anxiety symptoms, and a psychiatric consult, though arranged only occasionally, is especially important for persons who are so impaired by their anxiety symptoms that they may not be able to utilize therapy effectively unless assisted by medication.
Next, the person learns about the nature and experience of anxiety and of his or her particular problem with anxiety. This includes learning how to better observe, record, and report anxiety-related triggers, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. All of this helps the therapist gain a clearer understanding of the person’s specific anxiety problems. The better we understand the specific way an anxiety disorder is experienced by a patient, the better able we are to design an effective cognitive-behavioral intervention. A “road map” of the person’s symptoms is then devised; along with a treatment plan that specifies the specific thinking and behavioral habits to be modified through therapy, and which techniques will be used.
Cognitive Restructuring is a technique for identifying and challenging maladaptive thinking styles that fuel anxiety. In essence, one learns to ask, “What am I saying to myself about this situation that is making me feel so anxious?” Once these thoughts are identified, the person learns how to critically analyze the validity of these thoughts, and develop a replacement set of thoughts based on a more rational (evidence-based) appraisal of the situation. Unlike the power of positive thinking– which essentially focuses on having a person tell him or herself, “Everything will be OK“– cognitive restructuring is based on the power of critical or logical thinking. As with all skills developed in CBT, cognitive restructuring is learned in the treatment sessions and practiced by the patient on his or her own.
The next stage in CBT is usually one or more variations of therapeutic exposure during which the person practices facing his or her fears. Therapeutic exposure (as opposed to everyday exposure that some people have) is carried out carefully and under the guidance of a therapist. It is usually gradual, meaning that exposure begins with facing easier situations, working up to more challenging ones. The person also practices self-supervised exposure tasks between treatment sessions.
Although exposure therapy seems difficult, when armed with a full understanding of the problem and cognitive restructuring techniques, the person is well-prepared to face these fears. By developing a hierarchy, or list of fears, the patient challenges him or herself only a little at a time, beginning with the least challenging fears, and building up strength and self- confidence, moving upwards, to more feared situations. Finally, long-term maintenance of gains, relapse prevention, and “lapse response protocols,” or the ways in which to deal with symptoms which may re-emerge, are reviewed.
As you can see by the procedure described above, the focus of treatment is on the reduction and even elimination of anxiety symptoms. However, in addition, throughout therapy, additional issues are often addressed. If the initial assessment reveals specific trauma or issues related to family history, these issues may be incorporated into the CBT. Comorbid conditions may exist as problems separate but often related to the anxiety condition, most commonly depression and/or substance abuse. These and other comorbid conditions can also be addressed in treatment as needed. Issues around self- esteem and interpersonal functioning almost always are addressed as part of treatment. The development of, and/or improvement in, the support systems outside of therapy is promoted. Finally, the respect, support, and encouragement in the therapy relationship itself is crucial to the success of treatment.
You can learn more about CBT from the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy